Law Research Guides: Cultural Property Law

Revised May 2007 VT, Revised Jan. 2012 VT
Created Nov. 2001

Cultural property law concerns the sale, transfer, theft and display of works of antiquity or other times that are possessed or regulated by a particular country or cultural group. These are usually pieces of sculpture or artifacts. This research guide gives only a sampling of what is available in the Law Library. Richter Library also has relevant titles.

 Selected Multilateral Conventions

Sources Cited

Int’l Legal Materials: International Legal Materials (International Collection: K9.N85)
L.N.T.S.: League of Nations Treaty Series (International Collection: JX170.L4)
O.A.S. T.S.: Organization of American States Treaty Series (International Collection: F1402.A169)
Stat.: U.S. Statutes at Large (Core A)
T.I.A.S.: United States Treaties and Other International Acts Series (Treaty’s unique number. See: U.S.T.)
U.N.T.S.: United Nations Treaty Series (International Collection: JX170.U35)
U.S.T.: United States Treaties and Other International Agreements (International Collection: JX231.A34)

Agreement on the Importation of Educational, Scientific and Cultural Materials, With Protocol, Nov. 22, 1950 (Florence Agreement).
17 U.S.T. 1835, T.I.A.S. No. 6129
131 U.N.T.S. 25

Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, 1886, 1896, 1908. 1914, 1928, 1948, 1967, 1971, 1979.
828 U.N.T.S. 221
http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ip/berne/trtdocs_wo001.html
http://www.law.cornell.edu/treaties/berne/overview.html
U.S. Implementation Act of 1988, 102 Stat. 2853, Pub. L. No.100-568

Convention Between the United States of America and Other American Republics Concerning Artistic Exhibitions, December 23, 1936. Also called Inter-American Convention Concerning Artistic Exhibitions.
188 L.N.T.S. 151
51 Stat. 206 (1936)

Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage, Nov. 16, 1972. Also called World Heritage Convention (UNESCO).
1037 U.N.T.S. 151
27 U.S.T. 37 T.I.A.S. No. 8226

Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, May 14, 1954.
249 U.N.T.S. 240

Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property, Nov. 14, 1970 (UNESCO).
823 UNTS 231 10 Int’l Legal Materials 289 (1971)

Convention on the Protection of the Archeological, Historical, and Artistic Heritage of the American Nations (Organization of American States Convention of San Salvador), June 16, 1976.
O.A.S. T.S. No. 47 (1976)
15 Int’l Legal Materials 1350 (1976)

Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, Nov. 2, 2001 (UNESCO).
41 Int’l Legal Materials 40 (2002)

Statutes of the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property, November-December 1956.
22 U.S.T. 19; TIAS No. 7038
41 Int’l Legal Materials 40 (2002)
(Australian Treaty Series, 1975, No. 30)
U.S. Implementation Act 80 Stat. 915, Pub. L. No. 89-665

Treaty Between the United States of America and Other American Republics on the Protection of Artistic and Scientific Institutions and Historical Monuments (Roerich Pact), April 15, 1935.
289 L.N.T.S. No. 3874
49 Stat. 3267 (1935)

UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects, June 24, 1995.

Bilateral Treaties

For a list with links to the full text of selected U.S. bilateral treaties go to the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs website. Go to the Site Index and scroll down to Country Specific page. Not all countries are listed. 

 Selected Monographs and Treatises

For additional titles, look on Baron, the Online Catalog under the following selected Library of Congress Subject Headings:

Art and various subdivisions of the subject
Art and State
Art Forgeries
Art—Law and Legislation
Art Patronage
Art Thefts
Artists Contracts
Artists—Legal Status, Laws, etc.
Arts—United States—Censorship
Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict
Copyright—Art—United States
Culture and Law
Cultural Property
Law and Art
Museums—Law and Legislation
Underwater Archeology
United States—Cultural Policy

Below are listed some of the titles in the Law Library that were published from the year 2006 through the latest received:

Antiquities Act: A Century of American Archeology, Historical Preservation, and Nature Conservation, ed. by David Harmon, Francis P. McManamon, and Dwight T. Pitcaithley, University of Arizona Press, 2006. (Treatise Collection: KF4310.A96 2006)

Antiquities Under Siege: Cultural Heritage Protection After the Iraq War, ed. by Lawrence Rothfield, AltaMira Press, 2008. (International Collection: DS79.76.A584 2008)

Art and Cultural Heritage: Law, Policy, and Practice, ed. by Barbara T. Hoffman, Cambridge University Press, 2006. (International Collection: K3791.A97 2006)

Art, Artifact, Architecture & Museum Law, by Jessica L. Darraby, Thomson/West, 2008—current update. (Treatise Collection: KF4288.A944)

Art As Plunder: The Ancient Origins of Debate About Cultural Property, by Margaret M. Miles, Cambridge University Press, 2008. (International Collection: N9114.M55 2008)

Bruges, the Bridge Between Civilizations: 75th Anniversary of Roerich Pact, by Peter Barenboim and Naeem Sidiqi, Grid Belgium, 2010. (International Collection: N9100.B37 2010)

Case Concerning Certain Property (Liechtenstein v. Germany), International Court of Justice, 2009. (International Collection: KZ218.C37) Re: repatriation of cultural property.

Chasing Aphrodite: The Hunt For Looted Antiquities at the World's Richest Museum, by Jason Felch and Ralph Frammolino, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2011. (International Collection: CC135.F46 2011) Re: J. Paul Getty Museum.

Commentary on the UNESCO 1970 Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export, and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property, 2nd ed., by Patrick J.O’Keefe, [England]: Institute of Art and Law, 2007. (International Law Collection: K3791.A4197 O33 2007)

Compleat Multilateral Cultural Property & Related 1874 To 2008: Agreements, Charters, Covenants, Conventions & Treaties, comp. by Harry H. Chartrand, Compiler Press, 2009. (International Collection and Reserve Audiovisual CD-ROM: K3791.C36 2009).

Contesting Human Remains In Museum Collections: The Crisis of Cultural Authority, by Tiffany Jenkins, Routledge, 2011. (Treatise Collection: CC79.5 H85 J46 2011)

Criminology and Archeology: Studies In Looted Antiquities, ed. by Simon Mackenzie and Penny Green, Hart, 2009. (International Collection: CC135.C73 2009)

Cultural Heritage Conventions and Other Instruments: A Compendium With Commentaries, ed. by Patrick J. O’Keefe and Lyndel V. Prott, UK, Institute of Art and Law, 2011. (International Collection: K3791.C85 2011)

Cultural Heritage Issues: The Legacy of Conquest, Colonization, and Commerce, ed. by James A.R. Nafziger and Ann M. Nicgorski, Martinus Nijhoff, 2009. (International Collection: K3791.C848 2009)

Cultural Heritage Management: A Global Perspective, ed. by Phyllis M. Messenger and George S. Smith, University Press of Florida, 2010. (International Collection: CC135.C845 2010)

Cultural Heritage of Mankind, ed. by James A.R. Nafziger and Tullio Scovazzi, Martinus Nijhoff Brill, 2008. (International Collection: K3791.P382 2008) Title and text in English and French.

Cultural Law: International, Comparative, and Indigenous, by James A.R. Nafziger, et al., Cambridge University Press, 2010. (International Collection: K487.C8 N34 2010)

Cultural Property In War: Improvement In Protection: Commentary On the 1999 Second Protocol To The Hague Convention of 1954 For the Protection of Cultural Property In the Event of Armed Conflict, by Jiri Toman, UNESCO, 2009. (International Collection: K3791.A41954 A38 2009)

Cultural Resource Laws & Practice, 3rd ed., by Thomas F. King, AltaMira Press, 2008. (Treatise Collection: KF4310.K56 2008)

First Nations Cultural Heritage and Law: Case Studies, Voices, and Perspectives, ed. by Catherine Bell and Val Napoleon, UBC Press, 2008. (International Collection: E78.C2 F445 2008)

Heritage and Identity: Engagement and Demission In the Contemporary World, ed. by Marta Anico and Elsa Peralta, Routledge, 2009. (International Collection: CC135.H45 2009)

Idea of Cultural Heritage, by Derek Gillman, Cambridge University Press, 2010. (International Collection: K3791.G54 2010)

Impact of Uniform Laws on the Protection of Cultural Heritage and the Preservation of Cultural Heritage In the 21st Century, ed. by Toshiyuki Kono, Martinus Nijhoff, 2010. (International Collection: K3791.I47 2010; Ordered 12/22/11)

International Law and the Protection of Cultural Heritage, by Craig Forrest, Routledge, 2010. (International Collection: K3791.F67 2010)

International Meeting On Illicit Traffic of Cultural Property: Rome, 16-17 December 2009, Gangemi, 2010. (International Collection: N8750.I45 2009)

Indigenous Heritage and Intellectual Property: Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore, 2nd ed., ed. by Silke. Von Lewinski, Wolters Kluwer Law & Business/Kluwer Law International, 2008. (International Collection: K1401.I53 2008)

International Law, Museums, and the Return of Cultural Objects, by Ana F. Vrdoljak, Cambridge University Press, 2008. (International Collection: K3791.V73 2008)

Introduction To Cultural Heritage Law, by Ugo M. Bonnici, Midsea Books, 2008. (International Collection: KKK1320.4 .M54 2008)

Loot: The Battle Over the Stolen Treasures of the Ancient World, by Sharon Waxman, Times Books, 2008. (International Collection: N8795.W39 2008)

National Approaches To the Governance of Historical Heritage Over Time: A Comparative Report, ed. by Stefan Fisch, IOS Press, 2008. (International Collection: CC135.N38 2008)

Neglected Witnesses: The Fate of Jewish Ceremonial Objects During the Second World War and After, ed. by JulieM.Cohen, UK: Institute of Art and Law and Amsterdam: Jewish Historical Museum, 2011. (International Collection: NK1672.N44 2011)

1972 World Heritage Convention: A Commentary, ed. by Francesco Francioni and Federico Lenzerini, Oxford University Press, 2008. (International Collection: K3791.A35 2008)

Protecting Cultural Property In Armed Conflict: An Insight Into the 1999 Second Protocol To The Hague Convention of 1954 For the Protection of Cultural Property In the Event of Armed Conflict, ed. by Nout van Woudenberg and Liesbeth Lijnzaad, Martinus Nijhoff, 2010. (International Collection: K3791.P722 2010)

Protection of First Nations Cultural Heritage: Laws, Policy, and Reform, ed. by Catherine Bell and Robert K. Patterson, UBC [University of British Columbia] Press, 2009. (International Collection: KE7709.P76 2009)

Protection of Cultural Property In Armed Conflict, by Roger O’Keefe, Cambridge, 2006. (International Collection: K3791.O44 2006)

Restitution of Cultural Assets: Causes of Action, Obstacles To Restitution, Developments, by Beat Schonenberger, Stampfli and Eleven International Pub., 2009. (International Collection: K3791.S36 2009)

Return of Cultural Treasures, 3rd ed., by Jeanette Greenfield, Cambridge University Press, 2007. (International Collection: CC135.G74 2007)

Taking Archeology Out of Heritage, ed. by Emma Waterton and Laurajane Smith, Cambridge Scholars Pub., 2009. (Treatise Collection: CC165.T35 2009)

Thinking About the Elgin Marbles: Critical Essays On Cultural Property, Art and Law, 2nd ed., by John H. Merryman, Wolters Kluwer Law & Business, dist. by Aspen, 2009. (International Collection: K3791.M47 2009)

Who Owns Antiquity? Museums and the Battle Over Our Ancient Heritage, by James Cuno, Princeton University Press, 2008. (International Collection: CC135.C85 2008)

Whose Culture? The Promise of Museums and the Debate Over Antiquities, ed. by James Cuno, Princeton University Press, 2009. (Treatise Collection: AM7.W47 2009)

Witnesses To History: A Compendium of Documents and Writings On the Return of Cultural Objects, ed. by Lyndel V. Prott, UNESCO, 2009. (International Collection: N8850.W58)

Selected Periodicals (Anglo American Periodicals on 2nd Floor)

To locate specific periodical articles, use INDEX TO LEGAL PERIODICALS on Baron, the Online Catalog, the Law Library’s Subscription Database or in hardcopy at the end of the Anglo American Periodical Collection, or LEGAL TRAC (Library Web page, or on Lexis as Legal Resources Index: Legal > Secondary Legal > View more sources > Annotations & Indexes > Legal Resources Index and on Westlaw (LRI)). INDEX TO FOREIGN LEGAL PERIODICALS is at the end of the alphabetical sequence of Anglo American Periodicals in hardcopy, the Law Library’s Subscription Database list and on Hein Online.

Art, Antiquity and Law, U.K. Institute of Art and Law, 1996- . (Law Library has v.2 (1997) – vol. 12 (2007). (Anglo American Periodical)

Cultural Heritage & Arts Review, American Society of International Law Interest Group for Cultural Heritage, 2010-- . (International Collection: K3.U58)

International Journal of Cultural Property, DeGruyter, 1992-- . (International Collection: K9.N7315)

Journal of Art Crime, Association for Research Into Crimes Against Art, 2009- - . (International Collection: K10.023)

 Selected Online Sources

Art Loss Register: Database of stolen, missing, or mortgaged art including information about Holocaust losses, statistics and how to report missing artworks.

Federal Bureau of Investigation: Art Theft Program

Fighting the Illicit Traffic in Cultural Property (International Council of Museums, ICOM)  

Institute of Art and Law, United Kingdom. Small independent research and educational organization which analyzed the interface between the world of art and antiquities and that of law.  

Interpol: Stolen Works of Art

Lootedart.com. The Central Registry of Information on Looted Cultural Property, 1933- 1945. It has two databases: (1) Information Database has information on laws, policies, reports, publications, archival records and resources, current cases and relevant websites from forty nine countries and (2) Object Database with details of over 25,000 objects. (Description is taken from the database’s homepage.)  

A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust: Bibliography: Looted Art. University of South Florida College of Education Florida Center for Instructional Education. (Source: U.S. National Archives and Records Administration.)

United States National Archives and Records Administration (search Holocaust art and other subjects for reports and articles)

United States State Department Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. International Cultural Property Protection.

 Other Research Guides

Cultural Property, University of Iowa College of Law Library, April 2011. 

Guide to Art and Cultural Property Law, HierosGamos. Treaties, information about stolen art, and other legal information, no date.

Legal Protection of Cultural Property: A Selective Resource Guide, by Louise Tsang, April 2007.

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QUOTE
"Perhaps the two most valuable and satisfactory products of American civilization are the librarian on the one hand and the cocktail in the other."
- Louis Stanley Jast, Librarian

QUICKLINKS

Training
Library Hours
Library Staff
Ask a Librarian

ACCESSING DATABASES FROM OFF-CAMPUS OR USING WIRELESS
Instructions: Video  |  Text

HELPFUL PHONE NUMBERS

Library Reference: 305-284-3585
Library Circulation: 305-284-3563
Automated Operator: 305-284-2250
Copy Center: 305-284-3272
Computer Help Desk: 305-284-5297

 

QUOTE
"Perhaps the two most valuable and satisfactory products of American civilization are the librarian on the one hand and the cocktail in the other."
- Louis Stanley Jast, Librarian